|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2012|
|Authors:||Wang, Y, Hou, Y, Gu, H, Kang, D, Chen, Z, Liu, J, Qu, L-J|
|Journal:||The Plant Journal|
|Keywords:||anaphase promoting complex subunit 4, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, auxin, connector, embryogenesis, female gametogenesis|
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in regulating cell-cycle progression. It has been widely studied in yeast and animal cells, but the function and regulation of the APC/C in plant cells are largely unknown. The Arabidopsis APC/C comprises at least 11 subunits, only a few of which have been studied in detail. APC4 is proposed to be a connector in the APC/C in yeast and animals. Here, we report the functional characterization of the Arabidopsis APC4 protein. We examined three heterozygous plant lines carrying apc4 alleles. These plants showed pleiotropic developmental defects in reproductive processes, including abnormal nuclear behavior in the developing embryo sac and aberrant cell division in embryos; these phenotypes differ from those reported for mutants of other subunits. Some ovules and embryos of apc4/+ plants also accumulated cyclin B protein, a known substrate of APC/C, suggesting a compromised function of APC/C. Arabidopsis APC4 was expressed in meristematic cells of seedlings, ovules in pistils and embryos in siliques, and was mainly localized in the nucleus. Additionally, the distribution of auxin was distorted in some embryos of apc4/+ plants. Our results indicate that Arabidopsis APC4 plays critical roles in female gametogenesis and embryogenesis, possibly as a connector in APC/C, and that regulation of auxin distribution may be involved in these processes.
|Short Title:||The Plant Journal|