|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2012|
|Authors:||Bogdan, K, Schenk, MK|
|Journal:||Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science|
|Keywords:||arsenic species, arsenic transport, Oryza, Oryza sativa, paddy soils, phloem|
Flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.) may contain high arsenic (As) concentrations compared to other grain crops. For the development of measures to reduce the As concentration of rice grains, knowledge about the mobility of As within the rice plant is required. Therefore, to investigate the mobilization of As within the plant, rice was grown in nutrient solution and exposed to As either before flowering, after flowering, or continuously until maturity. Furthermore, rice was grown in four soils under greenhouse and field conditions and the time course of As accumulation in grains during the grain-filling period was investigated. When grown in nutrient solution, As removal at flowering did not reduce As concentrations in polished rice compared to plants supplied with As continuously or after flowering. Plants that received As only after flowering had the same As concentrations in shoot and bran as plants receiving As only before flowering. However, continuous As supply resulted in doubling of As concentrations in both plant parts. In contrast to grain and shoot, the As concentration in the root decreased after As removal compared to the treatments receiving As only after flowering or continuously. The observations indicate that As was mobilized from root or shoot to the grain and that it was accumulated in the grain, although it was not available in nutrient solution during the grain-filling period. In soil experiments, the 1000-grain weight increased up to 2 weeks before harvest in the field as well as in the greenhouse. The As concentration in rice grain was constant during the whole grain-filling period. It was at a similar level under field and greenhouse conditions, and its variation among soils was in the same order indicating that soil was the decisive factor for As concentration in grains. Our results suggest that temporary cultural measures during the cultivation period, for example drainage, might be ineffective because of the mobilization capacity within the rice plant. Moreover, harvest before final maturity of grains would not reduce the As concentration since it remained constant during the grain-filling period.
|Short Title:||Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science|