|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2011|
|Authors:||Suttangkakul, A, Li, F, Chung, T, Vierstra, RD|
|Journal:||The Plant Cell|
Autophagy is an intracellular recycling route in eukaryotes whereby organelles and cytoplasm are sequestered in vesicles, which are subsequently delivered to the vacuole for breakdown. The process is induced by various nutrient-responsive signaling cascades converging on the Autophagy-Related 1 (ATG1)/ATG13 kinase complex. Here, we describe the ATG1/13 complex in Arabidopsis thaliana and show that it is both a regulator and a target of autophagy. Plants missing ATG13 are hypersensitive to nutrient limitations and senesce prematurely similar to mutants lacking other components of the ATG system. Synthesis of the ATG12-ATG5 and ATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine adducts, which are essential for autophagy, still occurs in ATG13-deficient plants, but the biogenesis of ATG8-decorated autophagic bodies does not, indicating that the complex regulates downstream events required for autophagosome enclosure and/or vacuolar delivery. Surprisingly, levels of the ATG 1a and ATG 13a phosphoproteins drop dramatically during nutrient starvation and rise again upon nutrient addition. This turnover is abrogated by inhibition of the ATG system, indicating that the ATG 1/13 complex becomes a target of autophagy. Consistent with this mechanism, ATG 1a is delivered to the vacuole with ATG8-decorated autophagic bodies. Given its responsiveness to nutrient demands, the turnover of the ATG 1/13 kinase likely provides a dynamic mechanism to tightly connect autophagy to a plant's nutritional status.
|Short Title:||The Plant Cell|