|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2010|
|Authors:||Itoh, RD, Yamasaki, H, Septiana, A, Yoshida, S, Fujiwara, MT|
Plastids assume various morphologies depending on their developmental status, but the basis for developmentally regulated plastid morphogenesis is poorly understood. Chemical induction of alterations in plastid morphology would be a useful tool for studying this; however, no such chemicals have been identified. Here, we show that antimycin A, an effective respiratory inhibitor, can change plastid morphology rapidly and reversibly in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the root cortex, hypocotyls, cotyledon epidermis and true leaf epidermis, significant differences in mitochondrial morphology were not observed between antimycin-treated and untreated tissues. In contrast, antimycin caused extreme filamentation of plastids in the mature cortices of main roots. This phenomenon was specifically observed in the mature root cortex. Other mitochondrial respiratory inhibitors (rotenone and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), hydrogen peroxide, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine [a nitric oxide (NO) donor] and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea did not mimic the phenomenon under the present study conditions. Antimycin-induced plastid filamentation was initiated within 5 min after the onset of chemical treatment and appeared to complete within 1 h. Plastid morphology was restored within 7 h after the washout of antimycin, suggesting that the filamentation was reversible. Co-applications of antimycin and cytoskeletal inhibitors (demecolcine or latrunculin B) or protein synthesis inhibitors (cycloheximide or chloramphenicol) still caused plastid filamentation. Antimycin A was also effective for plastid filamentation in the chloroplast division mutants atftsZ1-1 and atminE1. Salicylhydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor, was solely found to suppress the filamentation, implying the possibility that this phenomenon was partly mediated by an antimycin-activated alternative oxidase in the mitochondria.
|Short Title:||Physiologia Plantarum|
Chemical induction of rapid and reversible plastid filamentation in Arabidopsis thaliana roots