Angiosperm Flora of India

Cyanide, a Coproduct of Plant Hormone Ethylene Biosynthesis, Contributes to the Resistance of Rice to Blast Fungus

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2011
Authors:Seo, S, Mitsuhara, I, Feng, J, Iwai, T, Hasegawa, M, Ohashi, Y
Journal:Plant Physiology
Date Published:2011
ISBN Number:00320889
Keywords:Oryza, Oryza sativa

Rice (Oryza sativa) plants carrying the Pi-i resistance gene to blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae restrict invaded fungus in infected tissue via hypersensitive reaction or response (HR), which is accompanied by rapid ethylene production and formation of small HR lesions. Ethylene biosynthesis has been implicated to be important for blast resistance; however, the individual roles of ethylene and cyanide, which are produced from the precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid, remain unevaluated.In this study, we found that Pi-i-mediated resistance was compromised in transgenic rice lines, in which ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes were silenced and then ethylene production was inhibited. The compromised resistance in transgenic lines was recovered by exogenously applying cyanide but not ethephon, an ethylene-releasing chemical in plant tissue. In a susceptible rice cultivar, treatment with cyanide or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid induced the resistance to blast fungus in a dose-dependent manner, while ethephon did not have the effect. Cyanide inhibited the growth of blast fungus in vitro and in planta, and application of flavonoids, secondary metabolites that exist ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, enhanced the cyanide-induced inhibition of fungal growth. These results suggested that cyanide, whose production is triggered by HR in infected tissue, contributes to the resistance in rice plants via restriction of fungal growth.

Short Title:Plant Physiology
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