|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2012|
|Authors:||Serrano, M, Kanehara, K, Torres, M, Yamada, K, Tintor, N, Kombrink, E, Schulze-Lefert, P, Saijo, Y|
Recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) leads to the generation of MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI), which restricts the invasion and propagation of potentially infectious microbes. It has been described that the perception of different bacterial and fungal MAMPs causes the repression of flavonoid induction upon light stress or sucrose application.However, the functional significance of this MTI-associated signaling output remains unknown. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR act as the pattern recognition receptors for the bacterial M AMP epitopes flg22 (of flagellin) and elf 18 (of elongation factor [EF]-Tu), respectively. Here, we reveal that reactive oxygen species spiking and callóse deposition are dispensable for the repression of flavonoid accumulation by both pattern recognition receptors. Importantly, FLS2-triggered activation of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes and bacterial basal defenses are enhanced in transparent testai plants that are devoid of flavonoids, providing evidence for a functional contribution of flavonoid repression to MTI. Moreover, we identify nine small molecules, of which eight are structurally unrelated, that derepress flavonoid accumulation in the presence of flg22. These compounds allowed us to dissect the FLS2 pathway.Remarkably, one of the identified compounds uncouples flavonoid repression and PR gene activation from the activation of reactive oxygen species, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and callóse deposition, corroborating a close link between the former two outputs. Together, our data imply a model in which MAMP-induced repression of flavonoid accumulation serves a role in removing the inherent inhibitory action of flavonoids on an MTI signaling branch.
|Short Title:||Plant Physiology|