|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2012|
|Authors:||Avrova, A, Knogge, W|
|Journal:||Molecular Plant Pathology|
Rhynchosporium commune is a haploid fungus causing scald or leaf blotch on barley, other Hordeum spp. and Bromus diandrus. Taxonomy Rhynchosporium commune is an anamorphic Ascomycete closely related to the teleomorph Helotiales genera Oculimacula and Pyrenopeziza. Disease symptoms Rhynchosporium commune causes scald-like lesions on leaves, leaf sheaths and ears. Early symptoms are generally pale grey oval lesions. With time, the lesions acquire a dark brown margin with the centre of the lesion remaining pale green or pale brown. Lesions often merge to form large areas around which leaf yellowing is common. Infection frequently occurs in the leaf axil, which can lead to chlorosis and eventual death of the leaf. Life cycle Rhynchosporium commune is seed borne, but the importance of this phase of the disease is not fully understood. Debris from previous crops and volunteers, infected from the stubble from previous crops, are considered to be the most important sources of the disease. Autumn-sown crops can become infected very soon after sowing. Secondary spread of disease occurs mainly through splash dispersal of conidia from infected leaves. Rainfall at the stem extension growth stage is the major environmental factor in epidemic development. Detection and quantification Rhynchosporium commune produces unique beak-shaped, one-septate spores both on leaves and in culture. The development of a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and, more recently, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has allowed the identification of asymptomatic infection in seeds and during the growing season. Disease control The main measure for the control of R. commune is the use of fungicides with different modes of action, in combination with the use of resistant cultivars. However, this is constantly under review because of the ability of the pathogen to adapt to host plant resistance and to develop fungicide resistance.
|Short Title:||Molecular Plant Pathology|