|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2011|
|Authors:||Afzal, AJ, da Cunha, L, Mackey, D|
|Journal:||The Plant Cell|
RPM1-interacting protein 4 (RIN4) is a multifunctional Arabidopsis thaliana protein that regulates plant immune responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and bacterial type III effector proteins (T3Es). RIN4, which is targeted by multiple defense-suppressing T3Es, provides a mechanistic link between PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effectortriggered immunity and effector suppression of plant defense. Here we report on a structure-function analysis of RIN4-mediated suppression of PTI. Separable fragments of RIN4, including those produced when the T3E AvrRpt2 cleaves RIN4 and each containing a plant-specific nitrate-induced (NOI) domain, suppress PTI. The N-terminal and C-terminal NOIs each contribute to PTI suppression and are evolutionary conserved. Native RIN4 is anchored to the plasma membrane by C-terminal acylation. Nonmembrane-tethered derivatives of RIN4 activate a cell death response in wild-type Arabidopsis and are hyperactive PTI suppressors in a mutant background that lacks the cell death response. Our results indicate that RIN4 is a multifunctional suppressor of PTI and that a virulence function of AvrRpt2 may include cleaving RIN4 into active defense-suppressing fragments.
|Short Title:||The Plant Cell|