Angiosperm Flora of India

Specification of Cortical Parenchyma and Stele of Maize Primary Roots by Asymmetric Levels of Auxin, Cytokinin, and Cytokinin-Regulated Proteins

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2010
Authors:Saleem, M, Lamkemeyer, T, Schützenmeister, A, Madlung, J, Sakai, H, Piepho, H-P, Nordheim, A, Hochholdinger, F
Journal:Plant Physiology
Date Published:2010
ISBN Number:00320889

In transverse orientation, maize (Zea mays) roots are composed of a central stele that is embedded in multiple layers of cortical parenchyma. The stele functions in the transport of water, nutrients, and photosynthates, while the cortical parenchyma fulfills metabolic functions that are not very well characterized. To better understand the molecular functions of these root tissues, protein- and phytohormone-profiling experiments were conducted. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified 59 proteins that were preferentially accumulated in the cortical parenchyma and 11 stele-specific proteins. Hormone profiling revealed preferential accumulation of indole acetic acid and its conjugate indole acetic acid-aspartate in the stele and predominant localization of the cytokinin cis-zeatin, its precursor cis-zeatin riboside, and its conjugate cis-zeatin O-glucoside in the cortical parenchyma. A root-specific β-glucosidase that functions in the hydrolysis of cis-zeatin O-glucoside was preferentially accumulated in the cortical parenchyma. Similarly, four enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation that are regulated by cytokinin were preferentially accumulated in the cortical parenchyma. The antagonistic distribution of auxin and cytokinin in the stele and cortical parenchyma, together with the cortical parenchyma-specific accumulation of cytokinin-regulated proteins, suggest a molecular framework that specifies the function of these root tissues that also play a role in the formation of lateral roots from pericycle and endodermis cells.

Short Title:Plant Physiology
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